Croatia

The Croatian university sector is characterised by the historically high independency of faculties. There are two kinds of institutions in this regard; on the one hand, four out of nine universities are institutions which result from the union of independent, legally established faculties. The five more recently established universities have, on the other hand, a more central management model.

Organisational autonomy: medium high

The law includes provisions regarding the selection criteria for the executive head and the duration of their term of office, while leaving the definition of the modalities of election and dismissal to the university statutes. The law also determines the basic governance structure of universities, and the institution may select only part of the external members that compose the university board. Universities may in principle decide on their academic structures, although faculties are legally recognised organisational units. Universities may found other legal entities.

Financial autonomy: medium low

Universities receive yearly block grants for salaries, with little option for internal reallocation across categories. Universities may keep surpluses, and borrow with approval; they own their buildings but require approval to sell them. In a mixed system where half of the students are enrolled on state-funded places, and the other half pay fees, universities may only set the level of fees for doctoral candidates and international students.

Academic autonomy: medium low

Universities are able to decide on the number of fee-paying students and have limited capacity to select students by determining additional admission criteria. Programme accreditation is mandatory and must be carried out by the national agency. Study programmes delivered in languages other than Croatian do not receive financial support from the State.

Staffing autonomy: low

Universities have limited capacity to decide on staffing matters as a large majority of university staff have civil servant status. The number of posts and salary levels are controlled externally, and both promotions and dismissals are subject to specific regulations linked to civil servant status.

Organisational weighted 62% unweighted 62%

100

100% Selection procedure for the executive head

The selection of the executive head is not validated by an external authority

75

75% Selection criteria for the executive head

The law states that the executive head must hold an academic position

This applies to 13 other countries: Denmark, Estonia, Flanders, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Sweden

100

100% Dismissal of the executive head

The procedure for the dismissal of the executive head is not stated in the law

0

0% Term of office of the executive head

The exact length is stated in the law

57

57% External members in university governing bodies

Universities cannot decide as they must include external members

External members are partly appointed by the university and partly by an external authority

This applies to 6 other countries: Austria, France, Wallonia, Hesse, Iceland, Slovenia

0

0% Capacity to decide on academic structures

Faculties/other academic structures are listed in the law

This applies to 3 other countries: Luxembourg, Slovakia, Slovenia

100

100% Capacity to create legal entities

Universities can create legal entities without constraints

Financial weighted 60% unweighted 65%

60

60% Length of public funding cycle

20

20% Type of public funding

Block grant but internal allocation possibilities are limited by law

This does not apply to any other country.

Block grant with other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Austria, Hungary, Ireland, Poland

80

80% Ability to borrow money

Universities can borrow money with the approval of an external authority

This applies to 4 other countries: France, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain

100

100% Ability to keep surplus

Surplus can be kept without restrictions

60

60% Ability to own buildings

Universities can sell their buildings with the approval of an external authority

This applies to 5 other countries: Iceland, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Switzerland

0

0% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Bachelor level

Only an external authority is allowed to set the level of tuition fees

This applies to 6 other countries: Flanders, France, Wallonia, Ireland, The Netherlands, Spain

0

0% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Master's level

Only an external authority is allowed to set the level of tuition fees

This applies to 5 other countries: Flanders, France, Wallonia, The Netherlands, Spain

100

100% Tuition fees for national/EU students at doctoral level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Bachelor level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Master's level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at doctoral level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

Staffing weighted 36% unweighted 35%

67

67% Recruitment procedures for senior academic staff

Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 3 other countries: France, Hungary, Poland

The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for some staff

This applies to one other country: Italy

83

83% Recruitment procedures for senior administrative staff

The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 2 other countries: Denmark, Italy

0

0% Salaries for senior academic staff

Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 5 other countries: Wallonia, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

0

0% Salaries for senior administrative staff

Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 3 other countries: Wallonia, Slovakia, Slovenia

0

0% Dismissal of senior academic staff

Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 9 other countries: France, Wallonia, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain

Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

This applies to 8 other countries: Austria, Flanders, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland

0

0% Dismissal of senior administrative staff

Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 7 other countries: France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia

57

57% Promotion procedures for senior academic staff

Promotions are only possible if there is a post at a higher level

This applies to 7 other countries: Brandenburg, Wallonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal, Serbia

71

71% Promotion procedures for senior administrative staff

The law states who has to be included in the selection committee

This applies to one other country: Spain

Academic weighted 50% unweighted 49%

60

60% Overall student numbers

Universities decide on the number of fee-paying students while an external authority sets the number of state-funded study places

This applies to 3 other countries: Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania

60

60% Admissions procedures at Bachelor level

Admission criteria are co-regulated by an external authority and universities

60

60% Admissions procedures at Master's level

Admission criteria are co-regulated by an external authority and universities

This applies to 7 other countries: Austria, Denmark, Flanders, Hungary, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden

40

40% Introduction of programmes at Bachelor level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be funded

This applies to 3 other countries: France, The Netherlands, Spain

40

40% Introduction of programmes at Master's level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be funded

This applies to 3 other countries: France, The Netherlands, Spain

0

0% Introduction of programmes at doctoral level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

This applies to 9 other countries: France, Wallonia, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

100

100% Termination of degree programmes

Universities can terminate degree programmes independently

67

67% Language of instruction at Bachelor level

Universities can choose the language of instruction but will not receive public funding for foreign-language programmes

This applies to 2 other countries: Latvia, Serbia

67

67% Language of instruction at Master's level

Universities can choose the language of instruction but will not receive public funding for foreign-language programmes

This applies to 2 other countries: Latvia, Serbia

0

0% Selection of quality assurance mechanisms

Universities cannot select quality assurance mechanisms

0

0% Selection of quality assurance providers

Universities cannot choose the quality assurance agency

100

100% Capacity to design content of degree programmes

Universities can freely design the content of degree programmes and courses (other than for the regulated professions)