Hungary

Recent developments:

  • Creation of the position of chancellor in 2014 with large responsibilities including staffing and finances. Position directly appointed by the Prime Minister
  • Since 2015 possibility for universities to undergo programme accreditation with any ENQA-member organisation (Bachelor and Master levels)
  • Restricted capacity for universities to set the level of fees applying to national and EU students enrolled on a fee-paying basis

Organisational autonomy: medium low

The selection and dismissal of the executive head is confirmed by the President of the Republic. The law also prescribes selection criteria and the maximum term of office. External members forming the board-type of governing body are appointed externally. Hungarian universities are constrained in their capacity to organise themselves by the newly established position of chancellor, appointed by the Prime Minister, with extensive decision-making powers.

Financial autonomy: low

Universities cannot freely allocate public funding internally. They may not borrow funds and require the approval of external authorities to sell buildings. Universities may set the level of fees under a fixed ceiling, for those students who are not allocated a state-funded study place. Financial matters at the university are now fully overseen by the chancellor and the consistory.

Academic autonomy: medium low

In academic terms, Hungarian universities have more autonomy than in 2010 thanks to the opening-up of programme accreditation to EQAR-registered foreign bodies. Admissions remain controlled externally at Bachelor level and programme accreditation is mandatory. Universities can design the content of their academic programmes and choose the language of instruction.

Staffing autonomy: medium low

There has been little change since 2010 and the constraints associated with the civil servant status of the university staff remain. Salary levels are regulated via set minimum and maximum salaries. Final decision-making powers with regard to recruitment, salaries and promotions now rest with the chancellor appointed by the Prime Minister.

Organisational weighted 56% unweighted 60%

0

0% Selection procedure for the executive head

The selection of the executive head is validated by an external authority

50

50% Selection criteria for the executive head

The law states that the executive head must hold an academic position

This applies to 13 other countries: Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Flanders, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Spain, Sweden

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Brandenburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Serbia

80

80% Dismissal of the executive head

The dismissal is confirmed by an external authority but the procedure is decided by the university

This applies to 2 other countries: Portugal, Sweden

60

60% Term of office of the executive head

The maximum or range of length is stated in the law

This applies to 2 other countries: Finland, Latvia

29

29% External members in university governing bodies

Universities cannot decide as they must include external members

The appointment is completely controlled by an external authority

This applies to 5 other countries: Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland

100

100% Capacity to decide on academic structures

Universities can decide on their academic structures without constraints

100

100% Capacity to create legal entities

Universities can create legal entities without constraints

Financial weighted 39% unweighted 44%

60

60% Length of public funding cycle

0

0% Type of public funding

Block grant is split into broad categories and there are no or limited possibilities to move funds between these

This applies to 7 other countries: France, Wallonia, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden

Block grant with other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Austria, Croatia, Ireland, Poland

0

0% Ability to borrow money

Universities cannot borrow money

This applies to 5 other countries: Hesse, Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Switzerland

0

0% Ability to keep surplus

Surplus can be kept with other types of restrictions

This applies to one other country: Flanders

20

20% Ability to own buildings

Universities are not allowed to own their buildings

This applies to 6 other countries: Brandenburg, Hesse, Lithuania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Serbia, Sweden

40

40% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Bachelor level

Universities can set the level of tuition fees under a ceiling set by an external authority

This applies to 4 other countries: Iceland, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom

40

40% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Master's level

Universities can set the level of tuition fees under a ceiling set by an external authority

This applies to 2 other countries: Iceland, Italy

40

40% Tuition fees for national/EU students at doctoral level

Universities can set the level of tuition fees under a ceiling set by an external authority

This applies to 2 other countries: Iceland, Italy

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Bachelor level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Master's level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

80

80% Tuition fees for non-EU students at doctoral level

Universities and an external authority cooperate in setting the level of tuition fees

This applies to 3 other countries: Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland

Staffing weighted 50% unweighted 49%

67

67% Recruitment procedures for senior academic staff

Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 3 other countries: Croatia, France, Poland

Other restrictions

83

83% Recruitment procedures for senior administrative staff

Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Ireland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain

50

50% Salaries for senior academic staff

Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 4 other countries: France, Ireland, Lithuania, Serbia

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Flanders, Ireland, Norway, Poland

50

50% Salaries for senior administrative staff

Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 4 other countries: Denmark, France, Ireland, Serbia

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Flanders, Ireland, Latvia, Poland

0

0% Dismissal of senior academic staff

Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 9 other countries: Croatia, France, Wallonia, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain

0

0% Dismissal of senior administrative staff

Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 7 other countries: Croatia, France, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia

71

71% Promotion procedures for senior academic staff

Other restrictions

This applies to 7 other countries: Denmark, France, Wallonia, Hesse, Ireland, Italy, North Rhine-Westphalia

71

71% Promotion procedures for senior administrative staff

Other restrictions

This applies to 9 other countries: Denmark, France, Wallonia, Hesse, Ireland, Italy, North Rhine-Westphalia, Serbia, Slovenia

Academic weighted 58% unweighted 52%

60

60% Overall student numbers

Universities decide on the number of fee-paying students while an external authority sets the number of state-funded study places

This applies to 3 other countries: Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania

0

0% Admissions procedures at Bachelor level

Admissions are entirely regulated by an external authority

This applies to 7 other countries: Austria, Flanders, France, Wallonia, Lithuania, Slovenia, Switzerland

60

60% Admissions procedures at Master's level

Admission criteria are co-regulated by an external authority and universities

This applies to 7 other countries: Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Flanders, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Sweden

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Bachelor level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Master's level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at doctoral level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

This applies to 9 other countries: Croatia, France, Wallonia, Italy, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

100

100% Termination of degree programmes

Universities can terminate degree programmes independently

100

100% Language of instruction at Bachelor level

Universities can choose the language of instruction for all programmes

100

100% Language of instruction at Master's level

Universities can choose the language of instruction for all programmes

0

0% Selection of quality assurance mechanisms

Universities cannot select quality assurance mechanisms

100

100% Selection of quality assurance providers

Universities can choose the quality assurance agency freely according to their needs (including agencies from other countries)

This applies to 7 other countries: Austria, Brandenburg, Estonia, Finland, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia, Switzerland

100

100% Capacity to design content of degree programmes

Universities can freely design the content of degree programmes and courses (other than for the regulated professions)