Serbia

The country is included for the first time in the Autonomy Scorecard in the 2016 update.

Recent developments:

  • Ban on recruitment of public employees in Serbia, affecting university administrative staff

Organisational autonomy: medium low

The appointment of the university’s executive head does not require external validation. The law specifies selection criteria as well as the term of office of the rector. The university decides on the dismissal procedure. Universities must include external members in their board/council, but they are selected and appointed by the ministry. Changes to internal academic structures require ministerial approval. Universities can create legal entities via their faculties.

Financial autonomy: medium low

Universities have no control over the internal allocation of funds, which are distributed by the government as line-item budgets. Universities cannot borrow nor keep surpluses and cannot own buildings. In a mixed model where the majority of students are enrolled in state-funded places, universities may set the level of fees for self-paying students and international students.

Academic autonomy: medium low

Universities do not control student numbers, whether enrolled in state-funded or self-paying places. Admission to Bachelor and Master programmes is co-regulated. Both institutional and programme accreditation are mandatory. Universities do not receive funding for programmes delivered in foreign languages. They can design the content of their academic programmes.

Staffing autonomy: medium low

Universities decide on the recruitment procedures of senior academic staff, but are currently not able to hire administrative staff as part of a national ban on recruitment of public employees in Serbia. Salary bands are set by the ministry. The near-civil servant status of senior academic staff makes dismissals strictly regulated. The law includes provisions for selection committees for the promotion of senior academic staff. For both senior academic and administrative staff, promotions are only possible if a post is available.

Organisational weighted 51% unweighted 53%

100

100% Selection procedure for the executive head

The selection of the executive head is not validated by an external authority

25

25% Selection criteria for the executive head

The law states that the executive head must hold an academic position

This applies to 13 other countries: Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Flanders, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden

The law states that the executive head must come from within the university

This applies to 3 other countries: Flanders, Poland, Spain

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Brandenburg, Hesse, Hungary, North Rhine-Westphalia,

100

100% Dismissal of the executive head

The procedure for the dismissal of the executive head is not stated in the law

0

0% Term of office of the executive head

The exact length is stated in the law

29

29% External members in university governing bodies

Universities cannot decide as they must include external members

The appointment is completely controlled by an external authority

This applies to 5 other countries: Hungary, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland

20

20% Capacity to decide on academic structures

Guidelines exist in the law

This applies to 3 other countries: France, Iceland, Italy,

Other restrictions

This applies to one other country: Ireland

100

100% Capacity to create legal entities

Universities can create legal entities without constraints

Financial weighted 46% unweighted 60%

60

60% Length of public funding cycle

0

0% Type of public funding

Line-item budget

This does not apply to any other country.

0

0% Ability to borrow money

Universities cannot borrow money

This applies to 5 other countries: Hesse, Hungary, Norway, Portugal, Switzerland

0

0% Ability to keep surplus

Surplus cannot be kept

This applies to 2 other countries: Ireland, Lithuania,

0

0% Ability to own buildings

Universities are not allowed to own their buildings

This applies to 6 other countries: Brandenburg, Hesse, Hungary, Lithuania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Sweden

100

100% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Bachelor level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

This applies to 3 other countries: Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg,

100

100% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Master's level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

This applies to 6 other countries: Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal, United Kingdom

100

100% Tuition fees for national/EU students at doctoral level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Bachelor level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Master's level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at doctoral level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

Staffing weighted 58% unweighted 58%

100

100% Recruitment procedures for senior academic staff

Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

50

50% Recruitment procedures for senior administrative staff

The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for all staff

This does not apply to any other country.

Other restrictions

This applies to 4 other countries: Hungary, Ireland, Slovenia, Spain

67

67% Salaries for senior academic staff

Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 4 other countries: France, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania,

67

67% Salaries for senior administrative staff

Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 4 other countries: Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland,

20

20% Dismissal of senior academic staff

Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for some staff

This applies to 6 other countries: Austria, Brandenburg, Hesse, Ireland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Portugal,

Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

This applies to 8 other countries: Austria, Croatia, Flanders, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland

100

100% Dismissal of senior administrative staff

There are no sector-specific regulations concerning dismissals (national labour regulations apply)

29

29% Promotion procedures for senior academic staff

The law states who has to be included in the selection committee

This applies to 3 other countries: Norway, Portugal, Spain

Promotions are only possible if there is a post at a higher level

This applies to 7 other countries: Brandenburg, Croatia, Wallonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Portugal,

29

29% Promotion procedures for senior administrative staff

Promotions are only possible if there is a post at a higher level

This applies to 4 other countries: Brandenburg, Wallonia, Lithuania, Portugal,

Other restrictions

This applies to 9 other countries: Denmark, France, Wallonia, Hesse, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, North Rhine-Westphalia, Slovenia

Academic weighted 46% unweighted 44%

40

40% Overall student numbers

An external authority decides on the number of study places

This does not apply to any other country.

60

60% Admissions procedures at Bachelor level

Admission criteria are co-regulated by an external authority and universities

100

100% Admissions procedures at Master's level

Admission criteria are set by the university

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Bachelor level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Master's level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at doctoral level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

This applies to 9 other countries: Croatia, France, Wallonia, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

100

100% Termination of degree programmes

Universities can terminate degree programmes independently

67

67% Language of instruction at Bachelor level

Universities can choose the language of instruction but will not receive public funding for foreign-language programmes

This applies to 2 other countries: Croatia, Latvia,

67

67% Language of instruction at Master's level

Universities can choose the language of instruction but will not receive public funding for foreign-language programmes

This applies to 2 other countries: Croatia, Latvia,

0

0% Selection of quality assurance mechanisms

Universities cannot select quality assurance mechanisms

0

0% Selection of quality assurance providers

Universities cannot choose the quality assurance agency

100

100% Capacity to design content of degree programmes

Universities can freely design the content of degree programmes and courses (other than for the regulated professions)