Slovakia

There are three types of higher education institutions in Slovakia: they are either public or private, or “state higher education institutions”. The country profile focuses on the position of public universities.

Recent developments:

  • Decreasing number of part-time fee-paying students in the system
  • Adjustments to public funding allocation mechanisms
  • Phasing out of civil servant status for university staff towards public sector employee status

Organisational autonomy: medium low

The selection and dismissal of the executive heads of universities in Slovakia must be validated by an external authority. The dismissal procedure and exact length of the term of office are stated in the law. Universities propose part of the external members who compose the university board, and are consulted on the rest, but they are appointed by an external authority. Academic structures of universities are established by law. Slovak universities may freely create non-profit legal entities but face restrictions with regard to the creation of for-profit legal entities.

Financial autonomy: medium high

There is limited possibility of moving funds between block grant categories, which universities receive on an annual basis. Universities can keep surpluses without restrictions and borrow money up to a limited percentage as well as other conditions. Universities may not charge tuition fees to national and EU full-time students at any level, but may decide on the fees for international students.

Academic autonomy: medium low

The overall student numbers are decided upon in consultation with universities. Universities set admission criteria at all levels. All new degree programmes must be submitted to prior accreditation before they can be introduced, and universities cannot choose the quality assurance agency. Universities can terminate study programmes independently. Universities can design the content of academic programmes and choose the language of instruction.

Staffing autonomy: medium high

Universities are free to recruit senior academic and administrative staff. Salaries are set by an external authority for all staff. Dismissals are subject to regulations specific to the sector while promotions are an internal matter.

Organisational weighted 42% unweighted 40%

0

0% Selection procedure for the executive head

The selection of the executive head is validated by an external authority

100

100% Selection criteria for the executive head

The selection criteria for the executive head are not stated in the law

40

40% Dismissal of the executive head

The dismissal is confirmed by an external authority and the procedure is stated in the law

This applies to 5 other countries: Brandenburg, Iceland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Spain

0

0% Term of office of the executive head

The exact length is stated in the law

57

57% External members in university governing bodies

Universities cannot decide as they must include external members

External members are proposed by the university and appointed by an external authority

This applies to 2 other countries: Norway, Sweden

0

0% Capacity to decide on academic structures

Faculties/other academic structures are listed in the law

This applies to 3 other countries: Croatia, Luxembourg, Slovenia

80

80% Capacity to create legal entities

Other restrictions

This applies to 6 other countries: Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, Latvia, Poland, Sweden

Financial weighted 70% unweighted 64%

60

60% Length of public funding cycle

60

60% Type of public funding

Block grant is split into broad categories and there are no or limited possibilities to move funds between these

This applies to 7 other countries: France, Wallonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden

80

80% Ability to borrow money

Universities can borrow money up to a maximum percentage

This applies to 4 other countries: Brandenburg, Ireland, Italy, North Rhine-Westphalia,

100

100% Ability to keep surplus

Surplus can be kept without restrictions

100

100% Ability to own buildings

Universities can sell their buildings without restrictions

This applies to 9 other countries: Austria, Denmark, Estonia, France, Wallonia, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom

0

0% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Bachelor level

There are no tuition fees

0

0% Tuition fees for national/EU students at Master's level

There are no tuition fees

0

0% Tuition fees for national/EU students at doctoral level

There are no tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Bachelor level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at Master's level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

100

100% Tuition fees for non-EU students at doctoral level

Universities are free to set the level of tuition fees

Staffing weighted 61% unweighted 59%

100

100% Recruitment procedures for senior academic staff

Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

100

100% Recruitment procedures for senior administrative staff

Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

17

17% Salaries for senior academic staff

Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 5 other countries: Croatia, Wallonia, Italy, Slovenia, Spain

17

17% Salaries for senior administrative staff

Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 3 other countries: Croatia, Wallonia, Slovenia

20

20% Dismissal of senior academic staff

Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

This applies to 8 other countries: Austria, Croatia, Flanders, Ireland, The Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, Switzerland

20

20% Dismissal of senior administrative staff

Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

This applies to 5 other countries: Austria, Flanders, Ireland, The Netherlands, Switzerland

100

100% Promotion procedures for senior academic staff

Universities can freely decide on promotion procedures

100

100% Promotion procedures for senior administrative staff

Universities can freely decide on promotion procedures

Academic weighted 56% unweighted 55%

60

60% Overall student numbers

Universities negotiate with an external authority

100

100% Admissions procedures at Bachelor level

Admission criteria are set by the university

This applies to 8 other countries: Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, United Kingdom

100

100% Admissions procedures at Master's level

Admission criteria are set by the university

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Bachelor level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at Master's level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

0

0% Introduction of programmes at doctoral level

All new degree programmes/courses must be submitted to prior accreditation to be introduced

This applies to 9 other countries: Croatia, France, Wallonia, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain

100

100% Termination of degree programmes

Universities can terminate degree programmes independently

100

100% Language of instruction at Bachelor level

Universities can choose the language of instruction for all programmes

100

100% Language of instruction at Master's level

Universities can choose the language of instruction for all programmes

0

0% Selection of quality assurance mechanisms

Universities cannot select quality assurance mechanisms

0

0% Selection of quality assurance providers

Universities cannot choose the quality assurance agency

100

100% Capacity to design content of degree programmes

Universities can freely design the content of degree programmes and courses (other than for the regulated professions)