Staffing

Staffing autonomy refers to a university’s ability to decide freely on issues related to human resources management, including recruitments, salaries, dismissals and promotions.

In order to compete in a global higher education environment, universities must be able to hire the most suitable and qualified academic and administrative staff without external prescriptions or interference.

The ability to determine salary levels is of prime importance when attempting to attract an excellent international workforce. The civil servant status held by university employees still prevents institutions in a number of European countries from setting salaries.

The capacity to promote and dismiss personnel freely enhances an institution’s flexibility, providing it with a competitive advantage with regard to staffing matters. The possibility to promote staff on the basis of merit remains restricted in a number of European higher education systems. Compliance with applicable labour laws and regulations is of course not regarded as a restriction on institutional autonomy.

Recruitment procedures for senior academic staff

18
countries
Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

4
countries
Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 4 countries: Croatia, France, Hungary, Poland

0
countries
Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for all staff

This does not apply to any country.

2
countries
The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 2 countries: Croatia, Italy

1
country
The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for all staff

This applies to one country: France

0
countries
Recruitments are carried out by an external authority for some staff

This does not apply to any country.

0
countries
Recruitments are carried out by an external authority for all staff

This does not apply to any country.

15
countries
Other restrictions

Recruitment procedures for senior administrative staff

21
countries
Recruitments are carried out freely by universities

1
country
Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for some staff

This applies to one country: Portugal

0
countries
Appointments need to be confirmed by an external authority for all staff

This does not apply to any country.

3
countries
The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 3 countries: Croatia, Denmark, Italy

1
country
The number of posts is regulated by an external authority for all staff

This applies to one country: Serbia

1
country
Recruitments are carried out by an external authority for some staff

This applies to one country: France

0
countries
Recruitments are carried out by an external authority for all staff

This does not apply to any country.

5
countries
Other restrictions

This applies to 5 countries: Hungary, Ireland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain

Salaries for senior academic staff

5
countries
Universities can freely decide on staff salaries

This applies to 5 countries: Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland

4
countries
The decision on individual staff salaries is restricted due to an overall limit for all staff payments

This applies to 4 countries: Brandenburg, Flanders, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia

6
countries
Salary bands are negotiated with other parties

This applies to 6 countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom

3
countries
Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for some staff

This applies to 3 countries: Brandenburg, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia

5
countries
Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 5 countries: France, Hungary, Ireland, Lithuania, Serbia

2
countries
Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for some staff

This applies to 2 countries: Austria, Portugal

6
countries
Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 6 countries: Croatia, Wallonia, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain

5
countries
Other restrictions

This applies to 5 countries: Flanders, Hungary, Ireland, Norway, Poland

Salaries for senior administrative staff

6
countries
Universities can freely decide on staff salaries

This applies to 6 countries: Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

1
country
The decision on individual staff salaries is restricted due to an overall limit for all staff payments

This applies to one country: Flanders

7
countries
Salary bands are negotiated with other parties

0
countries
Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for some staff

This does not apply to any country.

5
countries
Salary bands are prescribed by an external authority for all staff

This applies to 5 countries: Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Serbia

4
countries
Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for some staff

This applies to 4 countries: Austria, Italy, Portugal, Spain

4
countries
Salaries are set by an external authority/civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 4 countries: Croatia, Wallonia, Slovakia, Slovenia

5
countries
Other restrictions

This applies to 5 countries: Flanders, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Poland

Dismissal of senior academic staff

9
countries
There are no sector-specific regulations concerning dismissals (national labour regulations apply)

7
countries
Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for some staff

10
countries
Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

9
countries
Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

Dismissal of senior administrative staff

12
countries
There are no sector-specific regulations concerning dismissals (national labour regulations apply)

7
countries
Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for some staff

8
countries
Dismissals are strictly regulated due to civil servant status for all staff

This applies to 8 countries: Croatia, France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia

6
countries
Dismissals are subject to other regulations specific to the sector

This applies to 6 countries: Austria, Flanders, Ireland, The Netherlands, Slovakia, Switzerland

Promotion procedures for senior academic staff

12
countries
Universities can freely decide on promotion procedures

4
countries
The law states who has to be included in the selection committee

This applies to 4 countries: Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Spain

8
countries
Promotions are only possible if there is a post at a higher level

8
countries
Other restrictions

Promotion procedures for senior administrative staff

14
countries
Universities can freely decide on promotion procedures

2
countries
The law states who has to be included in the selection committee

This applies to 2 countries: Croatia, Spain

5
countries
Promotions are only possible if there is a post at a higher level

This applies to 5 countries: Brandenburg, Wallonia, Lithuania, Portugal, Serbia

10
countries
Other restrictions